history of GOA

Goa traces its history to a very ancient period. It was known for as Gopakappattan. An arrow from Lord Parsurama's bow fell into the sea instantly reclaiming the land called Gomant. This was during the Mahabharat -- today this reclaimed land is called Goa! 
Through known history, Goa has belonged to various Kingdoms starting with the Mauryas under Ashoka in 250 BC. From the 6th to 8th centuries, the Chalukyas dominated only to replaced by the Rashtrakutas and in turn the Kadambas over the next three centuries. Muslim rule came to Goa towards the end of the 14th century in the form of the Bahamanis who then lost it and recaptured it from the Vijaynagar emperors a century later. The last King to rule before the Portuguese set foot was Yusuf Adil Shah of Bijapur. In 1510 Albuquerque captured Old Goa. Over the next 351 years the Portuguese consolidated their hold over Goa, braving a Dutch blockade in 1603 and a Maratha attack in 1667.The Marathas were eventually routed in 1739 and thereafter until the Pinto revolution of 1787 there was no further threat to their rule. 
The 'New conquests' between 1782 and 1791 were the result of four decades of planning first initiated by King Joao V of Portugal. When India attained Independence in 1947, tremendous pressure was exerted on the Portuguese to hand over Goa, Daman and Diu. The Portuguese held on grimly, even using force on occasion (as in 1955 when a group of 'satyagrahis' from India was attacked). It was a case of delaying of the inevitable which happened on 19 December 1961 when the Indian Army marched in, after a Naval Blockade by the Indian Navy. 26 years later, Goa attained statehood shedding its erstwhile 'Union Territory' status on 30/5/1987.

Most of Goa is a part of the coastal country known as the Konkan, which is an escarpment rising up to the Western Ghats range of mountains, which separate it from the Deccan Plateau. The highest point is the Sonsogor, with an altitude of 1,167 metres (3,827 feet). Goa has a coastline of 101 km (63 miles). Goa's main rivers are the Mandovi, the Zuari, the Terekhol, Chapora and the Betul. The Mormugao harbour on the mouth of the river Zuari is one of the best natural harbours in South Asia. The Zuari and the Mandovi are the lifelines of Goa, with their tributaries draining 69% of its geographic area. Goa has more than forty estuarine, eight marine and about ninety riverine islands. The total navigable length of Goa's rivers is 253 km (157 miles). Goa has more than three hundred ancient tanks built during the rule of the Kadamba dynasty and over a hundred medicinal springs. (Interactive map of Goa)
Goa, for the purpose of revenue administration is divided into district viz. North and South Goa with headquarters at Panaji and Margao respectively. The entire State comprises 11 talukas. For the purpose of implementation of development programmes the State is divided into 12 community development blocks.
Most of Goa's soil cover is made up of laterites which are rich in ferric aluminium oxides and reddish in colour. Further inland and along the river banks, the soil is mostly alluvial and loamy. The soil is rich in minerals and humus, thus conducive to plantation. Some of the oldest rocks in the Indian subcontinent are found in Goa between Molem and Anmod on Goa's border with Karnataka. Goa, being in the tropical zone and near the Arabian Sea, has a warm and humid climate for most of the year. The Western Ghats, which form most of eastern Goa, have been internationally recognised as one of the biodiversity hotspots of the world. The land away from the coast is rich in minerals and ores and mining forms the second largest industry. Mining in Goa focuses on ores of iron, bauxite, manganese, clays, limestone and silica. Rice is the main agricultural crop, followed by areca, cashew and coconut. The fishing is also an important in Goa.